Todo análisis de un texto se puede afrontar a partir de los niveles que comporta. 
Cada nivel de comprensión remite a las diversas posibilidades y maneras que todo texto presenta en el propósito de ser aprehendido. 
Estos niveles van desde lo más simple y evidente hasta lo más complejo y encubierto, es decir, desde un nivel superficial hasta un nivel profundo.

Se comunica en inglés como lengua extranjera; en forma organizada, elocuente y asertiva en situaciones literarias diversas, demostrando seguridad y valorando la diversidad lingüística y cultural. 
☛ Traduce e interpreta diversos tipos de textos escritos en inglés, en relación a situaciones comunicativas cotidianas. 

☛ Infiere el tema, propósito, hechos y conclusiones a partir de información implícita y explícita e interpreta la intención del interlocutor. 

☛ Organiza y desarrolla ideas en torno a un tema central haciendo uso de algunos conectores coordinados y subordinados incluyendo vocabulario cotidiano y construcciones gramaticales determinadas, variadas y pertinentes. 

☛ Lee diversos tipos de textos de nivel básico en inglés, que presentan estructuras simples con vocabulario cotidiano y variado. 

☛ Obtiene e integra información contrapuesta y ambigua que están en distintas partes del texto. 

☛ Interpreta el texto para construir su sentido literal a partir de la información proporcionada.

    New research suggests that people who drink two to three cups of coffee a day— caffeinated or not—may have a lower chance of dying from certain illnesses than those who abstain. 
    The study, thought to be the largest of its kind, followed more than 500,000 people in 10 European countries over the course of 16 years. It found that compared with those who don’t drink coffee, those who do show signs of having healthier livers and circulatory systems, as well as lower levels of inflammation, says epidemiologist and study leader Marc Gunter. The findings also indicated that “higher coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of death from any cause,” including circulatory diseases and digestive diseases, says Gunter, who heads the nutrition and metabolism section of the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon, France. 
    Previous, smaller scale studies have found a link between coffee drinking and increased resistance to certain ailments, but Gunter’s findings provide the most substantial evidence to date. 
Zuckerman, C. (2019) «Coffee Is Good For You». From National Geographic. 
Una nueva investigación sugiere que las personas que beben de dos a tres tazas de café al día, con cafeína o no, pueden tener una menor probabilidad de morir de ciertas enfermedades que las que se abstienen. 
    El estudio, considerado el más grande de su tipo, siguió a más de 500000 personas en 10 países europeos en el transcurso de 16 años. Encontró que, en comparación con aquellos que no toman café, los que sí muestran signos de tener hígados y sistemas circulatorios más saludables, así como niveles más bajos de inflamación, dice el epidemiólogo y líder del estudio Marc Gunter. Los hallazgos también indicaron que «un mayor consumo de café se asoció con un menor riesgo de muerte por cualquier causa», incluidas las enfermedades circulatorias y las enfermedades digestivas, dice Gunter, quien dirige la sección de nutrición y metabolismo de la Agencia Internacional para la Investigación del Cáncer en Lyon, Francia. 
    Estudios anteriores a menor escala han encontrado un vínculo entre el consumo de café y una mayor resistencia a ciertas dolencias, pero los hallazgos de Gunter proporcionan la evidencia más sustancial hasta la fecha. 
The passage is about 
A) research that relates coffee consumption to the prevention of digestive and circulatory diseases. 
B) a comparative analysis that relates the healthy lifestyle and daily coffee consumption. 
C) Marc Gunter's findings in a study that assesses the health of coffee consumers around the world. 
D) a research that indicates that people who drink coffee suffer less illness than those who do not drink it. 
The text is mainly about a research that indicates that people who drink coffee suffer less illness than those who do not drink it. 
Rpta. : "D"
The word SHOW implies 
A) teaching. 
B) considering. 
C) evidence. 
D) measurement. 
The results show a healthier life in those who consume coffee. 
Rpta. : "C"
It is inferred from the passage that the study led by Gunter 
A) has been carried out approximately sixteen years ago. 
B) compares people who drink and do not drink coffee. 
C) has obtained results never before seen in science. 
D) is not the only one that analyzes coffee consumption. 
The last paragraph mentions other studies that have also analyzed coffee consumption on a smaller scale. 
Rpta. : "D"
It is incompatible to affirm that people who drink coffee every day are less healthy because 
A) there are studies that show that those who drink coffee suffer from less illness. 
B) makes them sleep less and, therefore, their consumers do not have a healthy life. 
C) there is no evidence about the benefits of coffee consumption in all sick people. 
D) coffee contains antioxidants that act as a defense against possible diseases. 
It is incompatible to affirm that people who drink coffee every day are less healthy because there are studies that show that those who drink coffee suffer from less illness. 
Rpta. : "A"
If a student drinks two or three cups of coffee daily, 
A) they will guarantee to stay awake during all his classes. 
B) they could reduce the risk of dying from any disease. 
C) they will only drink decaffeinated coffee to stay healthy. 
D) they would possibly be part of the study led by Gunter. 
According to Gunter's study, consuming two to three cups of coffee a day can reduce the risk of death from any disease. 
Rpta. : "B"
    Black holes have long inspired the imagination yet challenged discovery. However, from a combination of theory and observation, scientists now know much about these objects and how they form, and can even see how they impact their surroundings. 
    Black holes are extremely dense and invisible pockets of matter, objects of such incredible mass and miniscule volume that they drastically deform the fabric of space-time. Anything that passes too close, from a wandering star to a photon of light, gets captured. Most black holes are the condensed remnants of a massive star, the collapsed core that remains following an explosive supernova. The black hole family tree has several branches, from tiny structures on par with a human cell to enormous giants billions of times more massive than our sun. 
So, how does one study a region of space that is defined by being invisible? 
    Theorists can calculate properties of black holes based on their understanding of the universe, and such discoveries have come from a range of great thinkers, from Albert Einstein to Stephen Hawking to Kip Thorne. However, despite being so powerful, it is hard to see something that does not emit photons, let alone traps any light that passes by. 
National Science Foundation. Exploring Blackholes. National Science Foundation. 
What is the topic of the passage? 
A) The principal characteristics of black holes in space 
B) The latest technologic advances scientists develop 
C) The importance of the investigation of black holes 
D) The challenges scientists have studying black holes 
The text explains what are black holes and then shows the different kind of problems scientist have studying them and how to solve them. 
Rpta. : "D"
The word REMNANTS refers to 
A) ruins. 
B) pieces. 
C) excesses. 
D) vestiges. 
Remnants refers to vestiges, residues, remains of massive stars. 
Rpta. : "D"
We can infer that the studies about black holes 
A) are crucial to inspire new space researchers. 
B) were done for great thinkers like Kip Thorne. 
C) are distant from being a new type of research. 
D) were so powerful that nobody can refuse them. 
The text say that these elements «have long inspired the imagination». So, these studies are not new. 
Rpta. : "C"
It is incompatible with the passage to affirm that black holes 
A) were in most of the cases massive stars. 
B) have an abundant amount of branches. 
C) are at least bigger than a human body. 
D) have a pretty small size but a lot of mass. 
According to the text, black holes could be as small as a human cell. 
Rpta. : "C"
If black holes emitted photons, then 
A) it would be easier for researchers to investigate them. 
B) we would certainly look at them from planet Earth. 
C) it would cease to exist the interest of many scientists. 
) that would be because most of them finally collapsed. 
Black holes are difficult to study because they do not emit photons to be seen. 
Rpta. : "A"
    What is the last animal you saw? Can you remember its color, size and shape? Could you easily distinguish it from other animals? Now, how about the last plant you saw? If your mental images of animals are sharper than those of plants, you’re not alone. Children recognize that animals are living creatures before they can tell that plants are also alive. 
    This tendency is so widespread that Elisabeth Schussler and James Wandersee, a pair of US botanists and biology educators, coined a term for it in 1998: “plant blindness”. They described it as “the inability to see or notice the plants in one's own environment.” Plant blindness, not surprisingly, results in an under-appreciation of plants – and in a limited interest in plant conservation. 
    Plant biology courses around the world are shutting down at a dizzying rate and public funding for plant science is drying up. While studies haven't been done on the extent of plant blindness and its change over time, increased urbanization and time spent with devices means that “nature deficit disorder” (the harm caused to humans by being alienated from nature) is on the rise. And with less exposure to plants comes greater plant blindness. 
Ro, Ch. Why “plant blindness” matters —and what you can do about it. BBC Future. 
What is the main idea of passage? 
A) Plants are a vital part of the planet even if they only consider them an ornament. 
B) The plant blindness is the inability to perceive plants within their own environment. 
C) People know much less about plants because they are not considered living beings. 
D) The term "Plant Blindness" was introduced in 1998 by Wandersee and Schussler. 
The main idea is “The plant blindness is the inability to perceive plants within their own environment”. 
Rpta. : "B"
The word WIDESPREAD means 
A) generalized. 
B) unknown. 
C) reduced. 
D) diversified. 
The contextual synonym is “generalized”. 
Rpta. : "A"
It is inferred that Elisabeth Schussler and James Wandersee coined the term “Plant Blindness” because 
A) it was being confused with the recent “nature deficit disorder”. 
B) they wanted to be known as the creators of this phenomenon. 
C) it was necessary to standardize this extended phenomenon. 
D) only then could it accept that the plants were underestimated. 
Around the world was this problem, once the term was coined the phenomenon was standardized. 
Rpta. : "C"
It is compatible to affirm that animals are more ___________ than plants. 
A) interesting 
B) understood 
C) perceived 
D) striking 
It is compatible to affirm that animals are more PERCEIVED than plants. 
Rpta. : "C"
If the plants were more perceived than the animals, 
A) undoubtedly, all the animals of the world enter the list of living beings in extinction. 
B) it would probably be difficult for the children to recognize an animal as a living being. 
C) Schussler and Wandersee would have coined the term “animal blindness” in 1998. 
D) “Plant Blindness” would refer to the preference to perceive plants and not animals 
As in the case of “Vegetal Blindness”, if the animals were less perceived, children would find it a little more difficult to consider them as living beings. 
Rpta. : "B"

Ejercicios resueltos de examen de admisión a la Universidad